Framingham Heart Study was established in 1948 to analyze risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and other diseases. In one of the longest researches carried out by Framingham Heart Study, researchers discovered a close relationship between reduced rates of hip fractures and lowered rates of heavy drinking and smoking.
Long-term Study Examines Risk Factors of Bone Fractures
Methodology: The study was carried out from 1970 to 2010. During the study, 4,918 men and 5634 women were recruited as study participants after getting informed consent.
Results: According to the study’s results, the fracture incidence was reduced by a rate of 4.4% every year since the study started. Apart from this, a reduced rate of heavy drinking by 4.5% was also observed. The smoking rate was also to have declined from 38% (the 1970s) to 17% during the period 2006-2010. The results show that there is a close correlation between the decreased rates of hip fractures and smoking.
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The study disclosed the importance of lifestyle factors in contributing to bone health. Smoking and heavy drinking play a vital role in affecting bone health. The study has emphasized that every lifestyle factor should be taken under consideration to research on bone health.
Smoking: A risk factor for cardiovascular, respiratory, and bone diseases
Smoking is found to be a causative agent of many disorders, especially cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Other than that, smoking was also found to have a negative effect on bone density. As a result, the vitamin D level reduces, and in turn, calcium absorption also reduces.
Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is a disease that results in the weakening of bone. The bone becomes so brittle that it can be easily broken. Osteoporosis-related signs mostly arise in the spine, hip, and wrist areas. Apart from osteoporosis, researchers must focus on other factors affecting bone health. As previously mentioned, smoking and heavy drinking are major contributors to the precipitation of hip fractures.
Although the sample size was quite large, several limiting factors were also observed. The study was conducted solely on white individuals, therefore, there may be variability found in other populations. Another limiting factor was that the prevalence of obesity was smaller in the selected population. Apart from it, another limiting factor was the unavailability of bone measuring facilities.
Framingham Heart Study was established in 1948. In 1949, the National Heart, Lung, and blood institute took responsibility for the project. Most of the participants in this study have already passed away. Nevertheless, the institute is still working to explore the factors contributing to lung, heart, and blood disorders.