Getting Rid of Dicarbonyls Can Cure Atherosclerosis and Lower Insulin Resistance

Metabolism involves building up body tissues using nutrients and breaking down energy stores to get more fuel for the functioning of the human body. These are life-sustaining metabolic reactions that maintain the living state of cells and tissues. During these processes, the body utilizes nutrients and produces waste products in succession. Some of these waste products can be toxic to the human body causing damaging effects. Oxidative stress causes the development of atherosclerosis and Insulin resistance. Lipid peroxidation gives rise to the production of reactive carbonate like malondialdehyde (MDA) and Isolevuglandins (IsoLG)  which covalently bind to cellular phospholipids, proteins and DNA causing cell toxicity and damage. It’s been proposed that 5’-O-pentyl-pyridoxamine can scavenge these toxic chemicals and thereby cause a less harmful impact on the cells. A study was conducted by Jiansheng Huang et al to prove whether the scavenging of dicarbonyls by  5’-O-pentyl-pyridoxamine(PPM) is protective against insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in mice.



PPM proves to be very effective

In the study, male and female laboratory mice were used as test subjects. Mice were kept in micro-isolator cages and had unlimited access to water and food. They were treated with PPM and their metabolism was analyzed. The extent of plaque, efferocytosis, macrophage inflammation, dicarbonyl-lysyl adducts, apoptosis, and necrotic areas was studied. The addicts of plasma MDA-LDL were analyzed, and the in vivo and in vitro influence of PPM on HDL’s ability to reduce cholesterol was measured. Insulin resistance was also assessed by evaluating fasting insulin and glucose levels and tolerance to insulin/glucose challenge.

On result analysis, PPM decreased the proximal aortic atherosclerosis in male and female mice by 46% and 48%, respectively. PPM also reduced insulin resistance, hepatic fat, and inflammation in male subjects. Most importantly, PPM reduced plasma MDA-LDL adducts and increased the net cholesterol reflux capacity of HDL.

Clinical significance

PPM appears to minimize atherosclerosis without altering plasma cholesterol, which suggests that by preventing oxidative changes, PPM maintains normal molecular activities. PPM which is a form of vitamin B6 is very effective in reacting with carbonyls which are by-products of protein glycation eventually preventing harm. With the knowledge of the role, PPM has to play, its therapeutic potential could be utilized in preventing varying cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.


In conclusion, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases are on the rise. The development and pathophysiology of atherosclerosis depend heavily on oxidative stress. The study provided insight into the positive effects PPM has on the body system. The atheroprotective impact PPH has on the cells and tissues prove useful.


Scavenging dicarbonyls with 5’-O-pentyl-pyridoxamine increases HDL net cholesterol efflux capacity and attenuates atherosclerosis and insulin resistance



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