A List of the Most Common Eye Diseases and Disorders That Ophthalmologists See Day to Day

The most common eye conditions are diabetes-related retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and cataracts. Apart from these, there are also refractive eye disorders such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Let’s talk about these in detail, starting with refractive eye disorders.

Cataract Surgery

Cataract Surgery

Refractive eye disorders

Refractive eye disorders are those that are caused by abnormalities in the shape of the lens, the cornea, and/or the retina. Refractive errors can be inherited or acquired. The most common refractive errors include nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), and astigmatism.

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Refractive eye disorders are usually corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses like the Acuvue Oasys, but some conditions require prescription lenses for proper correction.

Nearsightedness and farsightedness refer to eyes that are too short or long for the person. Astigmatism is an abnormal curvature of the cornea (the clear front surface of your eye). Presbyopia is a condition that affects people’s ability to see close objects.

  • Nearsightedness is a condition in which the light rays coming through the eye focus too near, usually to the point of being able to see objects only at arm’s length.
  • Farsightedness is a condition in which the light rays coming through the eye focus too far away, usually to the point of being able to see objects only from afar.
  • Astigmatism is an optical condition wherein rays from different parts of the object come to a focus at different points in front of or behind one another.
  • Presbyopia is an age-related condition in which vision declines as we get older due to changes in our lenses, which causes us to need reading glasses.

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Cataracts are a clouding of the lens in the eye that may cause vision loss. It’s a leading cause of blindness among older adults.

According to John F. Doane, M.D. of  Discover Vision Center Cataracts are cloudy spots on the front surface of your lens or clear lens. The cloudiness may be caused by an injury or infection in your eye. Most cataracts do not cause any symptoms or problems unless they become large enough to cause legal blindness. If you have a cataract, it’s important to see an eye doctor right away so that it can be treated before it becomes large enough to cause vision loss.

The clouding may take on one or more colors and interfere with your vision. Cataracts may also affect color perception and cause glare from headlights or sunlight reflected off shiny objects such as water, snow, or jewelry. Cataract surgery is an outpatient procedure that involves removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with a clear plastic one.

Diabetes-related retinopathy

This condition is known as “diabetic eye disease” because it often develops in people with diabetes, but it can happen in any person who has had diabetes for a long time. Diabetic retinopathy causes blood vessels in the front layers of the retina (the back part of the eye) to grow abnormally large, leak fluid, and swell. When this occurs, it can cause blurred vision and other vision problems. People with diabetic retinopathy may also notice discoloration of their vision called “stains.”


Glaucoma is a group of diseases that affect how well your eyes function over time. It can lead to permanent damage if left untreated, so it should be treated immediately whenever it’s detected. Glaucoma causes damage to the optic nerve and causes temporary blindness through tunnel vision (seeing only what’s directly in front of you). There are several types of glaucoma.

The optic nerve is the pathway that allows light to enter your eyes. Glaucoma occurs when the pressure inside the eye increases and damages the optic nerve. Glaucoma can damage vision, sometimes permanently. Early detection of glaucoma is important because it can be treated with medication or surgery to maintain or improve vision.

Age-related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that causes the cells in the back of your eye to die, which can lead to vision loss. In AMD, the central part of your retina called the macula, becomes damaged. The two main types of AMD are dry AMD and wet AMD. Dry AMD is more common than wet AMD. Dry AMD affects more than 1 million Americans over 65 years old, while wet AMD affects nearly 30 million Americans over 65 years old.

It’s a common eye condition that causes loss of central vision, usually in the center of the retina. It occurs when the macula, the part of the eye responsible for seeing fine detail, becomes damaged due to damage to blood vessels and tissue. AMD can cause a loss in your ability to see clearly at near and far distances.

Read also: German Scientists Develop Glasses for the Blind That Detect Obstacles Using Vibrations

AMD is a disease that destroys the light-sensitive tissue in the retina, causing blurred or distorted vision. The most common symptom of AMD is a sudden loss of central vision, which usually affects the center of your field of vision. Other symptoms include:

  • Difficulty reading or seeing faces
  • Seeing flashes of light or bright spots, especially at night
  • The blurring of both central and peripheral vision, especially with movement
  • Double vision

Read also: A Brain Implant May Be Used to Restore Basic Vision in the Blind

In conclusion

From refractive errors that can be corrected with glasses, contacts, or surgery to serious eye diseases that affect those advanced in age, many different types of eye problems affect people of all age groups and medical conditions.

Taking care of any eye problem when symptoms first appear is critical to ensuring healthy vision. No matter what type of complication you’re facing, you must seek the medical assistance of a doctor.








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